Three “Cs” of Public Participation

Papers Portal – Practical Theory, Public Participation, & Community Workshop Civic Discovery and the Three “Cs” of Public Participation: Consultation, Consensus, and Collaboration by Gregg B. Walker.

“Writing in The Power of Public Ideas, Robert Reich has urged policy decision makers, organizations, and citizens to seek civic discovery: processes through which “citizens debate their future.” This essay examines the extent to which decision makers and organizations, such as agencies, foster civic discovery through public participation. Public participation processes of consultation, consensus, and collaboration are compared. The three processes’ different techniques and philosophies influence communication interaction and learning, and consequently, the role of citizens in policy decision making.”

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